NYC Building Code

Every building in New York City must meet certain safety, usability, and aesthetic requirements, and these are detailed in the NYC building code. Every phase of construction and renovation is governed by these rules. In addition, there are rules that preside over the overall appearance of a structure, such as which colors and building styles can be used in certain areas.

During construction or renovation, it will be necessary for a city employee to examine the building at various stages during the project, in order to ensure that all rules within the NYC building code are being followed. The project’s contractor must grant access to the site, regardless of whether it is a commercial or a residential structure. If any problems are found, work on other areas of the building may be delayed until the problem is fixed.

Those who own their own homes are not immune from compliance with the NYC building code, either. If one chooses to do a project within a home, even if it is minor and out of view, it may be necessary to obtain a building permit and allow the work to be inspected as it progresses. Failing to obtain the proper permits for the work can result in stiff fines for the homeowner, not to mention an unsafe house, if something was done wrong.

While the structure of the building is the central focus, the NYC building code also covers a wide variety of other issues, as well. Entrances to commercial buildings, for instance, must be accessible with a wheel chair. Air conditioning and ventilation systems must meet certain acoustic requirements. In addition to these examples, the NYC building code has many other special requirements that apply only to certain buildings, such as those that are in historic areas.

Though there are many different rules within the pages of the NYC building code, it is important to be familiar with them, not only for safety reasons, but also because non-compliance with the codes can be quite expensive.

San Francisco Building Code

The San Francisco Building Codes are amendments to the California Building Standards Codes.  Recently, the San Francisco building code has added provisions for ecologically friendly standards for commercial and private developers.  So far, Boston Massachusetts has been the only city in the United States thus far to set such rigorously environmentally friendly standards on private developers.  This San Francisco building code addendum is looking to improve energy use and water consumption and the quality of the interior space we ask people to live in and make efforts to reduce the city’s carbon footprint.  In 2004, the supervisors for the San Francisco building code approved an ordinance requiring all new municipal construction and major renovation projects to adhere to standards called LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification. The United States Green Building Council, a nonprofit group of building industry leaders that promotes ecologically friendly building, developed the LEED certification system.  San Francisco expedites permits for developers who obey LEED requirements.

As a whole, the purpose of the San Francisco building code is to provide minimum standards to safeguard life or limb, health, property and public welfare by regulating and controlling the quality and ways in which buildings are built, destroyed, maintained, occupied, and used.  As a result, electrical equipment, wiring and systems in or on any building or structure moved into or within the city and county of San Francisco as well as mechanical and plumbing equipment must all adhere to strict codes as prescribed in the 2001 revision of the California building codes. 

Because California is known for its’ frequency of earthquakes, little can be done and little has been done to reinvent the San Francisco building code to reflect improvements on buildings to resist earthquake damage because realistically, no building is earthquake proof and will always suffer damage.  The goal of the San Francisco building code is to protect the lives inside the buildings while minimizing damage.

Los Angeles Building Code

City Department of Building and Safety

The city of Los Angeles Department of Building and Safety is responsible for more than 43,000 building code enforcement cases every year.  This department is not only in charge of the Los Angeles building code but many other residential and commercial building matters.  Everything from Los Angeles building code complaint resolution to security bars and sign enforcement is handled by the Department of Building and Safety.  Many of the functions performed by this department of the city are accomplished in conjunction with other city agencies.  The “Slumlords Task Force” and the “Pro-Active Code Enforcement” programs are handled in combination with the City Attorney’s Office and a number of other city agencies. 

Main Responsibilities

Of course, the main function of the Los Angeles Department of Building and Safety is to review construction plans for complacency to the Los Angeles building codes and performing inspections to make sure these codes are met properly.  The Los Angeles building codes are in place to ensure the safety and appropriate appearance of the city.  Economic stability is also achieved using the Los Angeles building codes by fair and equitable land use regulations.  The Los Angeles building codes cover a number of topics other than direct construction plans review including fence specifications, board up or barricade regulations, vacant property abatement and trespassing.

Many Other Responsibilities

The Department of Building and Safety is responsible for more than just the standard Los Angeles building codes.  The “Annual Inspection Monitoring” program, also known as the AIM program, requires the inspection of all auto repair and dismantling facilities, junk yards, used car lots, storage yards, cargo containers and recycling centers every year for building and land use ordinance violations.  Failure to comply with these regulations can result in fines and/or revocation of their Certificates of Occupancy.  This is but one of the tasks delegated to the Department of Building and Safety. These responsibilities are extensive and varied but necessary to keep the city beautiful.

Michigan Building Code

Any building contractor in the state of Michigan is required to obtain a building permit when undertaking a major structural alteration of a building, or starting a new construction. The building permit states the contractor or builder will follow the Michigan building code. In most instances normal maintenance does not require a building permit. Work that is not considered normal maintenance includes the removal of a wall, or any portion, the cutting or removal of a support beam, or the removal or change of any required means of exit.

The purpose of the Michigan building code is to insure the safety of the public concerning the construction of, or alteration of any building. Separately building permits for plumbing, mechanical and electrical work are also required when appropriate. These usually include the addition or replacement of plumbing, electrical or mechanical fixtures such as a new sewer pipe, electrical service, or heating/air conditioning unit. It is a violation of Michigan building code to undertake any major structural modification without a building permit.

The applicant of a building permit must submit in writing, detailed plans outlaying the specifications of the work to be done. This includes location of property lines, exact proportions of the project, and the kinds of materials to be used.  In most instances the local government issues the permits, and is also responsible for the inspection of the work upon completion.  The building inspector makes sure that the contractor followed the Michigan building code regarding the building materials, quality of work, deviation from plans, or any other circumstance that may result in a hazardous condition.

In essence the purpose of a building permit insures that a building inspector inspects any major work to a building. The building inspector insures that the work is up to the Michigan building code insuring the safety of the public.

Minnesota Building Code

There are certain aspects to the Minnesota building code pertaining to modular wheelchair ramps that need to be studied including those of building permits which allows for exemptions under section 301(b) 7 of the Uniform Building Code for platforms and walks as well as driveways that do not exceed thirty inches above grades that are not covered by building permit requirements.

Land Use/Zoning Permits

There is also special local government regulation with respect to land use/zoning permits which may place restrictions on distance to property lines as well as on maximum area and even height and more. However, the specific requirements can vary between jurisdictions which mean that it is up to the local governments how they interpret the Minnesota building code.

Another facet to the Minnesota building code deals with guardrails and according to UBC 1711 open as well as glazed sides of stairways, ramps and landings that rise to more than thirty inches over grade must have guardrails that will act as protection. In case of guardrails near to a ramp or landing that serves a single-family dwelling, it must be at least thirty-six inches high or more and there must also is intermediates that will prevent spheres of six inches in diameter from passing through.

However, another change to the Minnesota State Building Code that came into affect from March twenty-fifth in the year 1995 was that the intermediates should be installed in order to not let any sphere of four inches to pass through.

As far as the code pertaining to ramps is concerned, when ramps are meant to be used to allow people to leave the building, their construction must conform to UBC 3307. Other aspects that are also dealt with in the Minnesota building code include weather exposure, and footings as well as miscellaneous matters.

New York Building Code

In a state as diverse as New York, it’s easy to understand the need for building standards that vary according to the needs of a given area.

The New York building codes must meet the needs of one of the largest cities in the world as well as many small towns in rather remote locations.  Elevations in the state range from sea level to almost a mile high, too, generating the need to adopt building standards that address the issue of altitude.

Perhaps some of the more rigid New York building codes address the needs of New York City itself.  The city is by far the most densely populated area of the state and all building projects must be undertaken with the safety and needs of such a tightly packed population in mind.

New York building codes for the city must take into consideration existing structures that may be several hundred years old as well as the new construction currently underway.  The city represents five counties so standards must be unified across those county jurisdictions.

New York City and Chicago are the only two major cities in the country that maintain their own buiding code models, although New York City is in the process of adapting its own codes to meet the International Building Code standards.

Because the state is one of the thirteen original US colonies, historical preservation is an important issue with New York building codes, especially in historically significant areas.

Building needs in the Catskill and Adirondack Mountain ranges poses specific needs on the New York building code books, too.  In these often sparsely populated areas, fire protection features are critical as are all building issues dealing with environmental issues.

The waterways of the St. Lawrence Seaway and Lakes Ontario and Erie present their own unique needs and protections of the New York building code.  These coastal areas, along with the area surrounding the Finger Lakes, require building standards that meet the needs of sensitive aquatic plant and animal life in these areas.

The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway also mark the international boundary between the United States and Canada.  All building projects along the boundary must meet the New York building code while not infringing on the safety of Canadian resources.

The diversity of the state makes New York one of the most interesting areas of the United States.  No doubt, the construction industry must also be interesting and diverse to meet the needs of its people.

New York State Building Code

Many states have building codes which specify the minimum requirements of safety a building must conform to before being used.  The main purpose of a building code is to protect the public from potential risks to the occupants of the building.  Aside from the codes pertaining directly to the building, building codes are also created to regulate things such as pools, sidewalks and porches.

Building codes can cover a wide range of building features.  Almost all building codes have structural and fire safety rules, however things such as energy conservation and air quality codes are fairly recent additions to many state’s building codes.  Usually things such as the aesthetics of a building are not included in a building code however some cities may have laws regarding the aesthetics of the building to ensure that the building will fit in with the rest of the city.

The 2006 New York State Building Code had 34 chapters covering everything from determining the maximum occupancy to the use of glass in a building.  The New York State Building Code also had 13 appendices covering topics such as protection against rodents.  A list of all the buildings codes is available for free; however it is a long and boring read so you may find it easiest to talk to an expert home inspector or a builder who is probably much more familiar with the New York building codes.

When it comes to building codes, usually there is a fairly basic set of building codes created at the state level, like the New York State building codes.  From there cities and towns have the option to add to the building codes and tailor them to the local area.  For example, the installation of sidewalks is an important aspect of city building codes, however in suburban areas sidewalks are only required in the main streets.

North Carolina Building Code

The North Carolina building code is in place so that home owners, contractors and architects follow a minimum standard of safety for the construction of, or modification of buildings. The International build code is used as a model throughout the United States with each state government adding amendments. The local government enforces the building code through the issuing of building permits, and subsequent inspections required for occupancy.

North Carolina has been ahead of the curve when it comes to regulating the construction of buildings for the protection of the public. The first laws enacted in 1903 and then 1905 regulated the materials and the methods used in construction. In 1933 a Building Code Council was established in cooperation with the office of insurance to write the initial North Carolina Building code. It was first adopted in 1935, and passed by the North Carolina Assembly in 1941. In 1957 the state legislature rewrote the 1933 law, and expanded the the responsibility of the building code council.

The North Carolina Building Code is a baseline for building regulations. A local government can adopt any building regulation that is tougher than the state code, but it cannot be more lenient. The local government must get the approval of the North Carolina Building Code Council for any changes or amendments to its local building code. The present day North Carolina building code is based on the 2003 International building code, with amendments added by the North Carolina Building Code Council.

The North Carolina Building Code was put in place with an eye toward protecting the public from any dangerous or unsanitary conditions in design and construction. They are minimum standards for contractors, engineers, architects and enforcement officials to follow. The North Carolina Building Code Council can amend the code whenever new materials and methods are developed.

NC Building Code

Building codes are specific laws to tell builders what the minimum requirements are when constructing a building.  The laws are made for safety reasons and to protect the general public.  Most of the various building codes are designed to be followed by architects and engineers who are actually designing buildings however they are also building codes that apply to contractors, manufacturers and insurance companies.

Almost all building codes are designed at the state and local levels and they all vary, however all are fairly similar.  For example the NY building codes might require that electrical outlets be spaced no more that 10 feet apart while NC building codes may require that they be placed no more than 12 feet apart.  While many of the differences may seem trivial, it is important for the states to have separate building codes to take account for things such as the regional environmental conditions.

For example, the NC building codes are different than the Alaskan building codes because North Carolina has a temperate environment while Alaska has frigid conditions that put different strains on buildings.  NC building codes take into consideration tropical storms and hurricanes which might come out of the Atlantic Ocean.  North Carolina building codes might also take into account such things as local insects which may be a hazard to certain types of building materials.

Some states may also decide to be more progressive with their building codes than other states.  For example, the NC building code may not be as friendly to the environment as the California building code, a state well known for placing environmental concerns at the forefront.  States must decide for themselves how to strike a balance with deciding how much to require of the builders.  By requiring builders to do more they drive up the price of construction which can put a strain on the economy statewide.

Ohio Building Code

Like all other US states, Ohio has enacted laws requiring building construction projects that occur within its state boundaries to meet or exceed the standards established by the legislature.  The Ohio building code is based on the Internatinal Building Code (IBC) model that is fairly standard across the nation.

The Ohio building code addresses the design, materials, safety, and building practices that work interactively for the construction industry in the state.  These codes are vital information for everyone working in the building construction industry as well as for those working in complementary industries, such as real estate, housing, and tenancy.

Standards for mechanical systems are defined in the Ohio building code books.  The standards detail the acceptable materials and design requirements that must be met for systems such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC); plumbing, water, wastewater, and sewage; as well as fire prevention and protection.

As is standard across most of the country, Ohio building code books address safety standards pertaining to traffic flow within a particular building.  Elevator and escalator systems must meet or exceed state requirements and all stairways and stairwells must do the same.

There are different Ohio building code regulations for residential and commercial construction projects.  Each type of building code is designed with the specific needs of the particular building construction industry in mind.

The needs of the environment as well as of the people are considered in the Ohio building code books.  Since the state orders the Great Lakes region, the environment of this ecologically sensitive part of the country is a key factor in establishing building codes along the lake shores.

Ohio building code standards must also consider the proximity of the state to Canada.  Building standards along the international border are designed so there is minimal impact to Canada.